FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
Founder: Karl Marx and Engels (1845) “The Communist Manifesto”, Lenin (1917)
“From each, according to his ability, to each according to his need.” This is one of the phrases that crystallize the meaning of communism. It isn’t easy to get an unbiased definition of communism, but one of the better ones describes it as socialism that abolishes private ownership and seeks to create a classless society.
“Communism is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order.”
“a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.”
What is Communism, really?
Founders: Pierre Leroux (1827)
“Socialism is an economic system characterized by public ownership and centralized planning of all major industries (manufacturing, services, and energy), banks and insurance companies, agribusiness, transportation, the media, and medical facilities.”
“Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic freedom, equality and cooperation.”
“Socialism is an economic concept that advocates public ownership of all resources. The production and distribution of resources with a society are then controlled by members of that society collectively or by the government that represents that society. Goods are produced and distributed based on need rather than on market forces such as profitability, price and consumers’ purchasing power. In a socialist economy, workers contribute to society based on their ability and receive according to their needs, rather than being paid wages and using that money to purchase what they want. Private possessions are limited to personal-use items such as clothes, and there is no need or ability for individuals to accumulate wealth, so there is equality among the people.”
What is Socialism?
Founders: Adam Smith “Wealth of Nations”
“An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.”
“Capitalism is generally considered to be a philosophy of economic systems that favors private ownership of the means of production, creation of goods or services for profit or income by individuals or corporations, competitive markets, voluntary exchange, wage labor, capital accumulation, and personal finance.”
“Capitalism is a socio-economic system in which private ownership means profit to the owner. The owner controls the means of production, so the profit belongs to the private business owner. In capitalism, the free market determines the production, distribution and price of goods and services.”
What is Capitalism? (1948)
Capitalism for Dummies (Fox News)
Founder: Adam Müller, Miguel Primo de Rivera
“Corporatism, also known as corporativism, is a system of economic, political, or social organization that involves association of the people of society into corporate groups, such as agricultural, business, ethnic, labor, military, patronage, or scientific affiliations, on the basis of common interests.”
“Corporatism, as practiced by many modern day democracies, is a set of economic and political policies whereby the government confers a great deal of laws and regulations that benefit businesses, and in particular large corporations that are able to lobby government officials, often times at the expense of individual rights and liberties, and undermining free market capitalism ideals.”
“The basic idea of corporatism is that the society and economy of a country should be organized into major interest groups (sometimes called corporations) and representatives of those interest groups settle any problems through negotiation and joint agreement.”
What Is “Corporatism”?
Founded: Mussolini (1919) “The Doctrine of Fascism”
“Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek rejuvenation of their nation based on commitment to an organic national community where its individuals are united together as one people in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood through a totalitarian single-party state that seeks the mass mobilization of a nation through discipline, indoctrination, physical education, and eugenics.”
“a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.”
“Fascism is a form of government that was popular between 1919 and 1945, but became taboo after the Holocaust and the defeat of the Axis powers in 1945. Since 1945, few groups have applied the term to themselves. The term “fascism” has become a universal epithet for anything bad.”
“A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.”
What is Fascism?
Founded: Giovanni Amendola (1923)
“Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible. Totalitarian regimes stay in political power through an all-encompassing propaganda campaign, which is disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that is often marked by political repression, personality cultism, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of speech, mass surveillance, and widespread use of terror.”
“A totalitarian regime is a government which controls every aspect of the life of the people. People living under a totalitarian regime generally also support it, sometimes almost cultishly, thanks to extensive propaganda missions which are designed to promote a positive view of the government. Citizens are also usually afraid to criticize the government, so they may be outspoken supporters to avoid closer scrutiny.”
Ten Steps To Totalitarianism
Founder: John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson (1870)
“Imperialism is the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.”
“Imperialism is the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination. Imperialism, as described by that work is primarily a Western undertaking that employs expansionist, mercantilist policies.”
Tariq Ali: What is imperialism?
Founded: Pierre-Joseph Proudhon “What is Property”, “The Philosopy of Poverty” (1847). William Godwin (1793) “Political Justice”.
“Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as “anarchists”, advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical voluntary associations.”
“a doctrine urging the abolition of government or governmental restraint as the indispensable condition for full social and political liberty.”
“a political theory holding all forms of governmental authority to be unnecessary and undesirable and advocating a society based on voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups.”
“The theory or doctrine that all forms of government are oppressive and undesirable and should be abolished.”
Anarchism 101: Lesson #1.1 – What is Anarchism?
Founded: William Belsham (1789), Libertarian Party created by David Fraser Nolan (1971).
“Libertarianism is generally considered to be the group of political philosophies which emphasize freedom, individual liberty, and voluntary association. Libertarians generally advocate a society with little or no government power.”
“Political philosophy that stresses personal liberty. Libertarians believe that individuals should have complete freedom of action, provided their actions do not infringe on the freedom of others.”
“they believe that individual freedom is the fundamental value that must underlie all social relations, economic exchanges and the political system. They believe that voluntary co-operation between individuals in a free market is always preferable to coercion exerted by the state.”
What is a Libertarian?
Founded: François-René de Chateaubriand (1819)
“is a political and social philosophy that promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports, at the most, minimal and gradual change in society. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others oppose modernism and seek a return to “the way things were”.”
“conservativism is a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.”
“A political philosophy or attitude emphasizing respect for traditional institutions, distrust of government activism, and opposition to sudden change in the established order.”
What is Conservatism?
Founded: John Locke “Father of Liberalism” (1690)
“Liberalism is the belief in liberty and equality under the law. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally liberals support ideas such as constitutionalism, liberal democracy, free and fair elections, human rights, capitalism, and the free exercise of religion.”
“Liberalism is a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution.”
“a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.”
What is Liberalism?
“Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.”
“A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.”
A theocracy, therefore, is a form of government in which rule is directed by the belief in a god or by certain religious beliefs. It might also be the case that the head of a theocratic government is the head of a specific religion, as in the case of Vatican City. Theocratic rulers are guided specifically by their religious beliefs and might see themselves as emissaries of their god who are meant to rule their people.
“Theocracy is a form of government in which the official policy is to be governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided, or simply pursuant to the doctrine of a particular religious group or religion.”
“Democracy is an egalitarian form of government in which all the citizens of a nation together determine public policy, the laws and the actions of their state, requiring that all citizens (meeting certain qualifications) have an equal opportunity to express their opinion.”
“government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.”
“A republic is a form of government in which the government is officially apportioned to the control of the people and thus a “public matter” and where offices of state are subsequently directly or indirectly elected or appointed.”
“a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.”
Conservative Vs. Liberal